have/has been done (Present Perfect Passive)

Present Perfect Passive  употребляется, когда речь идёт о результате, а исполнитель неизвестен, или это не имеет значения.

Для того, чтобы получить формулу Present Perfect Passive нужно заменить be в основной формуле пассива be + V3/ Ved, на have/has been.

Present Perfect Passive have/has been + V3/ Ved

The roof has been repaired. (Крышу отремонтировали.)
The report has been typed. (Отчёт напечатан.)
The car has been stolen. (Машину угнали.)
The post hasn’t been delivered yet. (Почту пока еще не доставили.)
Have you been invited to the wedding? (Тебя пригласили на свадьбу?)

When do we use the Present Perfect Tense?

1. Unspecified point in the past
I have been to Spain three times.
(At some unspecified time in the past, I went to Spain).
Compare with the simple past:
I went to Spain three times in 2005.
(specified time in the past – the year 2005)
2. An action that occurred in the past, but has a result in the present (now)
We can’t find our luggage. Have you seen it?
(The luggage was lost in the past, do you know where it is now?)
3. Talking about general experiences (ever, never)
It usually refers to an event happening at some moment in your life.
Has she ever tried Chilean wine before? (in her life)
I’ve never eaten monkey brains before. (in my life)
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