Aspects of higher academic study

to carry out research (проводить исследование)
academic journal (академический журнал)
to access sth online (получить доступ к чему-либо онлайн)
interlibrary loan (межбиблиотечный абонемент, система обмена книгами между библиотеками)
open educational resources (материалы по учебе в открытом  доступе в интернете)
to drop out (выбывать, быть отчисленным до окончания курса)
finals (выпускные экзамены)
well-qualified (высококвалифицированный)
academic article (научная статья)
feedback (обратная связь, коммментарии от преподавателя)
genius (гений)

Academic writing

composition (сочинение, 50-100 слов)
essay (эссе, реферат, сочинение, сотни – тысячи слов)
assignment (большое эссе, часть курса, тысячи слов)
project (проект, как эссэ, но на своих материалах)
portfolio (портфолио, собрание нескольких индивидуальных работ)
dissertation (дипломная работа, на базе исследований 10000-15000 слов)
thesis (диссертация для получения степени, например PhD, 80000-100000 слов)
a mind map (карта памяти со схемами взаимодействий)
a first draft (первый набросок, черновик)
plagiarism (плагиат)
acknowledge (детальное описание используемых источников)
a dead line (крайний срок)
to submit (представить)
to asses (оценивать)

Study and exams

to cram for an exam (зубрить накануне экзамена),
to do some revision (сделать некоторую ревизию),
to revise (пересмотреть),
to memorise , to learn off by heart (запомнить, выучить наизусть),
rote-learning (зубрежка),
mnemonic (способы  помогающие запоминать),
to bury yourself in your books (зарыться в учебники),
to study intensively (интенсивно учиться),
to know the subject inside out (знать предмет досконально).

Words and gender

Suffixes marking gender
Male (m): -er/ -or
actor, author, waiter, murder, manager
Female (f): -ess
actress, authoress, waitress, murderess, manageress.

Neutral Traditional male Traditional female
chair(person) chairman chairwoman
spokesperson spokesman spokeswoman
police officer policeman policewoman
– (postei*) postman postwoman
bartender barman barwoman
businessperson businessman businesswoman
firefighter fireman
flight attendant steward stewardess/ air hostess
head headmaster headmistress
partner/ spouse husband wife
nurse male nurse nurse
partner fiance fiancee
single bachelor spinster
writer author authoress
teacher schoolmaster schoolmistress
* -разговорный

The language of notice 

on a bus: Do not alight from the bus whilst it is in motion (Don’t get off the bus while it’s moving.)
on public transport (bus, train): These seats are appreciated by the old and infirm (These seats are for the people who are elderly or find it difficult to move easily.)
on a motorway: Reduce speed now (Start going more slowly now.)
on a cycle path: Cyclists dismount here (Cyclists should get off their bikes here.)
in the country: Trespassers will be prosecuted (People who walk on this private land will be taken to court.)
at the entrance to a car park: Pay and display (Buy a ticket and put it in a place where it can easily be seen.)
in the street: Penalty for dropping litter up to $100 fine (You can be taken to court and made to pay $100 for dropping rubbish.)
on the wall: No bill-sticking (You mustn’t put up any posters here.)
at the end of the escalator: Dogs must be carried (If people have a dog with them, they must carry it.)
at the zoo: Feeding the animals strictly prohibited (You are not allowed to feed the animals.)
on a river bank: Fishing strictly prohibited (Fishing is not allowed.)
Fishing: permit holders only (Only people with special cords given them permission are allowed to fish here.)
in the theatre: Kindly refrain from smoking in the auditorium (Please, don’t smoke in the theatre/ hall.)
outside the cinema: No admission to unaccompanied minors (Young people under 18 years old can only come in if they are with an adult.)
outside an exhibition/ dance/ concert hall: Admission to ticket holders only (People need a ticket to get in.)
at Customs: Nothing to declare (This is a way to go if you don’t have any goods to pay duty on.)
outside a café: Lunches now being served (You can buy lunch here now.)
Coffee now being served. (The café is open for coffee.)
Spanish spoken here. (The café staff can speak Spanish.)
Smoking strictly prohibited. (Smoking isn’t allowed in the café.)
at the supermarket checkout: Please place your purchases here (Please put the things you are going to buy/ have bought here.)
in a shop: Shop-lifters will be prosecuted (People who take things from the shop without paying will be taken to court.)
French spoken here (The staff there speak French as well as English.)
Clearance sale starts today (The things are going to be sold off cheaply because the shop wants to get rid of its stock or it is about to close down.)
Cycles for hire or sale (You can either hire or buy bicycles there.)
This packet carries a government health warning. (What is in this packet is officially considered bad for your health.)
in a hotel/ B&B: No vacancies (There are no free rooms there.)
Rooms to let (You can rent rooms there overnight.)
outside a block of flats: Flat to rent (One flat is vacant for renting.)


Money: dough, bread, dosh, loot, brass, spondulicks
Where’s the dough? It’s in a drawer, over there.
Could you lend me some dosh till tomorrow?

Police: pigs*, cop, copper, fuzz, bill
 * – могут быть оскорбительны для тех, кого так называют
Keep a look out for the pigs.
He’s a cop.

Drunk: pissed*, legless*, arseholed*, paralytic*, sozzled
Last night he seemed to be pissed.
He’s getting legless. Let’s take him home.

A stupid person: dickhead*, pillock*,wally, prat, nerd, jerk, plonker
Lavatory:  loo, lav, bog*, john
Can I use your loo, please?

Drink: booze, plonk, a snifter, a snort
We need to take some booze to the party.

Drug (related expressions): a fix, dope, grass, high, stoned, snow (= heroin)
Prison (related expressions):
nick (= prison)
He’s in the nick.
nark (= informer)
screw (= warder)

Wonderful: top-hole, wizard, fab, groovy, ace, cosmic, brill, wicked

grandma lane (= slow lane)
doughnuts (= tyres)
motion lotion (= fuel)
five finger discount (= stolen goods)
anklebiters (= children)
eyeballs (= headlights)
super cola (= beer)
affirmative (= yes)
a bloke (= man)
bally ache (= stomach ache)
I’ve got a terrible belly ache.
a quack (= doctor)
You’d better make an appointment with the quack.
a penguin suit (= a dinner jacket)
He had to wear a penguin suit to the wedding.
nosh (= food)
There’ll be plenty of nosh.
wheels (= car)
Have you got wheels or shall we call a taxi?
a cuppa (= a cup of tea)
I’m dying for a cuppa.
gobsmacked (= amazed)
He was absolutely gobsmacked when she told him she was leaving.
hubby (= a husband)
Where’s her hubby?
motor (= a car)
Let’s go for a run in the motor.
fella (= a fellow, a boyfriend)
He’s my fella.
brekkie (= breakfast)
Let’s have brekkie.
freebie (= something given away free)
It was a freebie.
a brickie (= break layer)
He’s a brickie.
a sickie (= a day of work claiming to be sick)
I took a sickie.
a barbie (= a barbecue)
Let’s have a barbie.

Cockney rhyming slang
(an expression is used in place of something that it rhymes with)
trouble and strife (= wife)
apples and pears (= stairs)
butcher’s (short for butcher’s hook = look)
Let’s have a butcher’s at your homework.
Gawd forbids (= kids)
Just look at those Gawd forbids playing football!
Cain and Abel (= table)
It’s on the Cain and Abel next to the phone.
Hampstead Heath (= teeth)
What a set of Hampstead Heath!
lean and lurch (= church)
She’ll get him to the lean and lurch by hook or by crook.
titfer (short for tit for tot = hat)
Have you seen my titfer?

Other Englishes

US or American English

Australian English  (укорачивают слова, затем добавляют –ie или -o)

Australian English British English
Oz Australia
smoko (from smoking) tea or coffee break
milko milkman, deliver the milk
journo journalist
uni university
mozzies mosquitoes
barbie barbecue
bizzo business
arvo afternoon
beaut beautiful

Indian English (более формальный, используют слова из классики XIX века)

Indian English British English
bereave condole
felicitate congratulate
bosom chest
miscreant bandit
abscond flee
nad catch
bag capture, obtain
Eve-teaser man who annoys girls
common man general public
fleetfoots plimsolls, sneakers
undertrials people awaiting trial
wearunders underwear


Scottish English British English
aye yes
ben mountain
brae bank (of the river)
dram drink (whisky)
glen valley
kirk church
loch lake
to mind to remember
bairn child
bonny beautiful
burn stream
stay live
dreich dull
janitor caretaker
lassie girl
outwith outside
ken know
wee small


Black English British English
dreadlocks Rastafarian hairstyle
chick girl
jam improvise
rap street-talk
beat exhausted
dig understand
pad bed
square dull

British English vs American English

Существует разница не только в произнесении многих слов, но и в их написании.
Различное написание слов:

British English American English
-our -or
труд labour labor
услуга favour favor
цвет colour color
-re -er
центр centre center
театр theatre theater

Используются разные слова для обозначения одного и того же:

British English American English
бензин petrol gas/ gasoline
грузовик lorry truck
багаж luggage baggage
прокол puncture blow-out
тротуар pavement sidewalk
очередь queue line
праздничный день holiday vacation
багажник boot trunk (of the car)
капот bonnet hood (of the car)
такси taxi cab
автомагистраль motorway freeway
поездка туда и обратно return round trip
в одну сторону single one-way
железнодорожный вагон railway carriage railway car
машинист engine driver engineer (on train)
коляска pram baby carriage
антенна aerial antenna
лифт lift elevator
ластик rubber eraser
шкаф wardrobe closet
шторы curtains drapes
кран tap faucet
скотч sellotape Scotch tape
сад garden yard
печенье biscuit cookie
сладости sweets candy
мусор rubbish (bin) trash (can)
подгузник nappy diaper
колготки tights panti-hose
баклажан aubergine eggplant
немецкая овчарка Alsatian German Shepherd
осень autumn fall

Разное значение у одних и тех  же слов:

British English American English
a bill a check (счёт) a bank note(банкнота)
the first floor the second floor (2-й этаж) the ground floor (1-й этаж)
pants underpants (нижнее белье, трусы) trousers (брюки)
potato chips French fries (жареный картофель) potato crips (чипсы)
a purse a wallet (кошелёк) a handbag (сумочка)
a subway an underpass
(подземный переход)
an underground (метро)
vest an undershirt (майка без рукавов) a waistcoat (жилет)
wash up wash the dishes (мыть посуду) wash your hand (мыть руки)

Headline English

В заголовках статей в газетах на английском языке обычно:
– опускаются артикли и вспомогательные глаголы:
– употребляются простые формы глаголов:
– используют аббревиатуру:
PM (Prime Minister), MP (Member of Parliament)
– применяются шутки в виде игры слов:
(A woman working at the Mars chocolate company got an interesting new job.)
– используются короткие слова, звучащих более драматично, чем обыкновенная лексика:
aid (помощь, помогать)
axe (удаление, удалять)
back (поддерживать)
bar (запрет, запрещать)
bid (попытка, пытаться)
blast (взрыв, взрывать)
blaze (пожар, загораться)
boost (поощрение, поощрять)
boss, head (менеджер, возглавлять)
clash (спор, спорить)
curb (ограничение, сдерживать)
cut (снижение, снижать)
drama (напряженная ситуация)
drive (усилие, принимать усилие)
gems (драгоценности)
go-ahead (одобрение)
hit (плохо влиять)
key (существенный, ключевой)
link (связь, связывать)
move (двигаться к желаемой цели)
ordeal (болезненный опыт)
oust (вытеснить,сместить)
plea (запрос)
pledge (обещание, обещать)
ploy (разумная деятельность)
poll (выборы, выбирать)
probe (расследование, расследовать)
quit (уйти, уволиться)
riddle (тайна, загадка)
strife (конфликт)
talks (обсуждения)
threat (опасность)
vow (обещание, обещать)
wed (свадьба, выходить замуж, жениться)


Warnings/ advice/ morals – do’s and don’t
Don’t count your chicken before they’re hatched. (Цыплят по осени считают. )
Don’t cross your bridges before you come to them. (Не говори “гоп” пока не перепрыгнешь.)
Don’t put all your eggs in one basket. (Не кладите все яйца в одну корзину.)
Never judge a book by its cover. (Не суди книгу по ее обложке.)
All that glitter is not gold. (Не всё золото, что блестит.)
Never look a gift horse in the mouth. (Дареному коню в зубы не смотрят.)
A bird in the hand is worth two in the brush. (Лучше синица в руках, чем журавль в небе.)
Take care of the pence and the pounds will take care of themselves. (Копейка  рубль бережёт.)
Absence makes the heart grow fonder. (Разлука укрепляет чувства.)
Familiarity breeds contempt. (Чем ближе знаешь, тем меньше почитаешь.)

Key elements
When the cat’s away, the mice will play. (Кота за двери, мыши в пляс.)
You can lead a horse to water but you can’t make it drink. (Можно привести ишака к воде, но пить его не заставит и шайтан.)
One swallow doesn’t make a summer. (Одна ласточка не делает лета.)

There’s no smoke without fire. (Нет дыма без огня.)
Too many cooks spoil the broth. (У семи нянек дитя без глаза.)
People who live in glass houses shouldn’t throw stones. (В чужом глазу соринку видит, а в своем бревна не замечает.)
Many hands make light work. (Одна голова хорошо, а две лучше.)